Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)
- Land use changes causing habitat loss are associated primarily with further expansion of agriculture and, secondarily, with the expansion of cities and infrastructure.
- This expansion is caused by increases in population, economic growth, and changing consumption patterns.
- By 2050, global population increase to 8.1–9.6 billion. At the same time, per capita GDP expands by a factor of 1.9–4.4 depending on the scenario.
- Demand is dampened by increasing efficiency in the use of resources. The expansion of agricultural land occurs mainly in developing countries and arid regions, whereas in industrial countries, agricultural area declines.
- The reverse pattern occurs in terms of forest cover, with some forest being regained in industrial countries but with 30% of the forest in the developing world being lost from 1970 to 2050, resulting in a global net loss of forest.